HPV Human Papillomavirus is a group of tiny, non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses. HPV is classified into high-risk (carcinogenic) and low-risk (non-carcinogenic).
High-risk HPV is most closely related to human tumors, and is closely related to the initiation, occurrence, development, and malignant phenotype of the tumor. Almost all (99.7%) of cervical cancers are caused by HPV infection, and HPV 16 and 18 subtypes are most closely related to malignant tumors, resulting in more than 70% of cervical cancer, 80% of anal cancer, and 60% of vaginal cancer. 40% of vulvar cancer. HPV 45 and 31 contracted 5% and 10% of cervical cancer, respectively.
Low-risk HPV is the causative agent of the genital anal fistula, and HPV 6 and 11 are associated with 90% of genital warts and 96% of condyloma acuminata.
HPV infection rate in sexually active women accounts for 50%-80%. There is usually no symptoms after HPV infection. Most HPV infections are transient and the risk of progression is small. Most HPV removals take time, and about 50% may turn negative in half a year, while the remaining 20%-30% may take 2-3 years to become normal.
From chronic persistent high-risk HPV infection to the final development of malignant tumors, it usually takes 10-20 years, but in a few cases, it can progress to malignant tumors within 1-2 years.
What is the impact of HPV infection on pregnancy?
The impact of HPV on fertilization: Most studies believe that HPV infection does not affect fertilization, and female HPV infection itself does not increase the difficulty of conception. Studies have also shown that women who receive artificial insemination have a pregnancy rate of only 1/4 of that of negative sperm. When a male is infected, the live birth/pregnant rate is reduced and the abortion rate is increased. Further research is needed due to limited research data.
Effect of HPV infection on maternal: Different studies have found that pregnancy does not cause progression of HPV or LSIL (lower squamous intraepithelial lesions).
The effect of HPV infection on pregnancy outcome: First, genital tract infection, HPV infection itself has no obvious correlation with premature rupture of fetal membranes. HPV infection is a sexually transmitted disease, easy to merge with other infections of the lower genital tract, such as bacterial vagina Disease, vulvovaginal candidiasis, Chlamydia trachomatis, etc., these lower genital tract infections are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, so HPV positive such as co-infection, easy to cause premature rupture of premature rupture of membranes.
The impact of low-risk HPV infection on newborns: low-risk subtype HPV infection (6,11) can be transmitted to the baby through mother-to-child transmission during birth, which can cause neonatal laryngeal papilloma, and there is no clinical symptom in early infants. Increased laryngeal papilloma and respiratory symptoms, such as extensive lesions, can cause severe dyspnea and death; can also cause major bleeding caused by soft birth canal injury during vaginal trial production, but studies have shown that this probability is small, Therefore, HPV infection is considered to have little effect on pregnancy outcomes and neonates. Infants rarely develop persistent HPV infection. After 6 months of follow-up, HPV infection can naturally turn negative.