According to the National Health and Wellness Committee of 2018, the number of patients with myopia in China exceeds 450 million, ranking first in the world; the detection rate of myopia in children and adolescents is as high as 40% to 72%, and the problem of prevention and control of myopia has become increasingly serious. Recently, the National Health and Health Commission issued the “Technical Guide for the Prevention and Control of Myopia for Children and Adolescents”. To this end, our “Health Weekly” specially interviewed Wu Zhihong, the chief physician of ophthalmology at the Third Medical Center of the People’s Liberation Army, to answer questions about the “Guide” and how to prevent and control myopia among young people.
Wu Zhihong pointed out that poor eye habits such as excessive eye use and excessive use of electronic products are the main factors leading to high incidence of myopia in children and adolescents. The Guide particularly emphasizes the prevention and control of myopia by two hours of outdoor exercise every day. Wu Zhihong suggested that scientific and reasonable correction of myopia, there are currently a variety of correction methods such as Orthokeratology, daily use of low-dose atropine, Orthokeratology, binocular imaging, etc., can not blindly rely on myopia glasses. In addition, parents should take a visual screening every six months to educate children and adolescents to pay attention to eye hygiene, balanced diet, ensure adequate outdoor activities, and cultivate good habits of eye-protection and eyesight. The conscious consciousness of a responsible person.
According to the National Health and Wellness Committee of 2018, the number of patients with myopia in China exceeds 450 million, ranking first in the world; the detection rate of myopia in children and adolescents is as high as 40% to 72%, and the problem of prevention and control of myopia has become increasingly serious. Recently, the National Health and Health Commission issued the “Guidelines for the Appropriate Technical Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Myopia for Children and Adolescents” (hereinafter referred to as the “Guide”), which has a more scientific and standardized ability to carry out prevention and control of myopia for children and adolescents and improve the ability of children and adolescents to prevent and control myopia. guide. To this end, China Women’s Daily·China Women’s Daily reporter interviewed Wu Zhihong, chief physician of ophthalmology at the Third Medical Center of the People’s Liberation Army, to answer questions about how to prevent and control myopia.
The incidence of myopia in children and adolescents is high, and the use of excessive eye distance is the main cause. Wu Zhihong said that improper use of the eye is the main factor in current myopia. He introduced that the causes of myopia are very complicated, mainly due to the following factors:
First, genetic factors, the vast majority of myopia is affected by the environment on the basis of genetics. Only a few congenital myopias are mainly determined by genetic factors. This type of myopia is relatively small, accounting for about 5% of the total number of myopia, and myopia is often high. High myopia autosomal chromosomes are recessively inherited. If parents are highly myopic, their children are 100% highly myopic; those with disease-causing genes and not manifested as diseases are called heterozygotes, and children with high myopia patients are married. 50% of high myopia may occur; children with two heterozygotes are 25% more likely to have high myopia.
The second is environmental factors, mainly caused by poor eye habits such as excessive eye use at close range. Prolonged use of the eye for a long time will cause paralysis of the ciliary muscle, loss of normal flexibility, and can not be fully relaxed in the long-term, that is, pseudo-myopia is formed. If it develops for a long time, the pressure of the extraocular muscles on the eyeball and the change of intraocular pressure make the axial length of the eye become true myopia. The external causes of close-eye use are often insufficient illumination, poor brightness contrast, and poor reading and writing habits. In order to see the fonts, the books should be brought closer. Seeing near will inevitably cause near-reflex, in which over-regulation can become pseudo-myopia; when over-collected, the oppression of the eyeball by the extraocular muscle may lead to true myopia. Therefore, it is the main reason for the formation of myopia.
The third is dietary factors, and the irrational diet structure can induce myopia. During the development of adolescents, lack of nutrition or partial eclipse can cause insufficient intake of protein and vitamins, and the lack of vitamin A, vitamin B1, and vitamin B2 is also a predisposing factor for myopia.