How to make children have a pair of bright and clear eyes

According to the National Health and Wellness Committee of 2018, the number of patients with myopia in China exceeds 450 million, ranking first in the world; the detection rate of myopia in children and adolescents is as high as 40% to 72%, and the problem of prevention and control of myopia has become increasingly serious. Recently, the National Health and Health Commission issued the “Technical Guide for the Prevention and Control of Myopia for Children and Adolescents”. To this end, our “Health Weekly” specially interviewed Wu Zhihong, the chief physician of ophthalmology at the Third Medical Center of the People’s Liberation Army, to answer questions about the “Guide” and how to prevent and control myopia among young people.

Wu Zhihong pointed out that poor eye habits such as excessive eye use and excessive use of electronic products are the main factors leading to high incidence of myopia in children and adolescents. The Guide particularly emphasizes the prevention and control of myopia by two hours of outdoor exercise every day. Wu Zhihong suggested that scientific and reasonable correction of myopia, there are currently a variety of correction methods such as Orthokeratology, daily use of low-dose atropine, Orthokeratology, binocular imaging, etc., can not blindly rely on myopia glasses. In addition, parents should take a visual screening every six months to educate children and adolescents to pay attention to eye hygiene, balanced diet, ensure adequate outdoor activities, and cultivate good habits of eye-protection and eyesight. The conscious consciousness of a responsible person.

According to the National Health and Wellness Committee of 2018, the number of patients with myopia in China exceeds 450 million, ranking first in the world; the detection rate of myopia in children and adolescents is as high as 40% to 72%, and the problem of prevention and control of myopia has become increasingly serious. Recently, the National Health and Health Commission issued the “Guidelines for the Appropriate Technical Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Myopia for Children and Adolescents” (hereinafter referred to as the “Guide”), which has a more scientific and standardized ability to carry out prevention and control of myopia for children and adolescents and improve the ability of children and adolescents to prevent and control myopia. guide. To this end, China Women’s Daily·China Women’s Daily reporter interviewed Wu Zhihong, chief physician of ophthalmology at the Third Medical Center of the People’s Liberation Army, to answer questions about how to prevent and control myopia.

The incidence of myopia in children and adolescents is high, and the use of excessive eye distance is the main cause. Wu Zhihong said that improper use of the eye is the main factor in current myopia. He introduced that the causes of myopia are very complicated, mainly due to the following factors:

First, genetic factors, the vast majority of myopia is affected by the environment on the basis of genetics. Only a few congenital myopias are mainly determined by genetic factors. This type of myopia is relatively small, accounting for about 5% of the total number of myopia, and myopia is often high. High myopia autosomal chromosomes are recessively inherited. If parents are highly myopic, their children are 100% highly myopic; those with disease-causing genes and not manifested as diseases are called heterozygotes, and children with high myopia patients are married. 50% of high myopia may occur; children with two heterozygotes are 25% more likely to have high myopia.

The second is environmental factors, mainly caused by poor eye habits such as excessive eye use at close range. Prolonged use of the eye for a long time will cause paralysis of the ciliary muscle, loss of normal flexibility, and can not be fully relaxed in the long-term, that is, pseudo-myopia is formed. If it develops for a long time, the pressure of the extraocular muscles on the eyeball and the change of intraocular pressure make the axial length of the eye become true myopia. The external causes of close-eye use are often insufficient illumination, poor brightness contrast, and poor reading and writing habits. In order to see the fonts, the books should be brought closer. Seeing near will inevitably cause near-reflex, in which over-regulation can become pseudo-myopia; when over-collected, the oppression of the eyeball by the extraocular muscle may lead to true myopia. Therefore, it is the main reason for the formation of myopia.

The third is dietary factors, and the irrational diet structure can induce myopia. During the development of adolescents, lack of nutrition or partial eclipse can cause insufficient intake of protein and vitamins, and the lack of vitamin A, vitamin B1, and vitamin B2 is also a predisposing factor for myopia.

Blu-ray not only hurts the eye but also “invades” the skin

Blue light refers to high-energy visible light with a wavelength of 400~500 nm, which is commonly found in computers, mobile phones, projectors, LED displays, laser pointers, and the like. Among the seven colors of visible light, the closer to the visible light in the ultraviolet region (such as violet light and blue light), the stronger the energy, the greater the damage to the human body. When it comes to the harm of blue light, many people know that it can cause eye fatigue, dryness and affect vision health. But maybe you don’t know, Blu-ray will “invade” the skin.

Blue light causes melanin deposition in the skin, especially in the epidermis layer and deeper skin layer, resulting in darkening, dullness and long spots on the skin. At the same time, blue light and ultraviolet light will promote the production of reactive oxygen species in epithelial cells more and more active, thereby accelerating skin aging, resulting in lack of elasticity and wrinkles.

Other studies have shown that because blue light is longer than ultraviolet light, it can penetrate deep into the skin, causing DNA oxidative damage, reducing the production of collagen and elastin, causing skin problems such as enlarged pores and dark circles. In addition, blue light also stimulates the brain and inhibits melatonin secretion. If you often use electronic products before going to bed, strong blue light will destroy the balance of hormone secretion, which will affect the quality of sleep, indirectly lead to dark yellow skin, acne, hair loss and other issues.

To protect against blue light hazards, the use of electronic equipment should be minimized to avoid prolonged periods of stay or exposure to blue light. When using a smartphone or tablet at night, the night mode should be turned on to reduce the radiation of blue light to the human body. At the same time, in daily life, you can eat more foods rich in vitamin A, vitamin E, selenium, β-carotene, etc. These are natural antioxidants.

For those who need to face mobile phones, computers and other electronic devices for a long time, it is recommended to take certain measures for proper protection, such as applying mineral sunscreen or foundation. (Deputy Chief Physician, Department of Dermatology, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University) Zhou Tao

Influenza season to vaccination can reduce acute respiratory disease

Respiratory disease old disease number: The flu season is coming, doing this can reduce acute attacks

A burst of autumn rain, the south gradually entered the late autumn, and the flu also occurred in the autumn and winter. Due to cold air, viral bacterial infection and other factors, autumn and winter are the high season of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. Many patients are hospitalized for acute attacks in autumn and winter. Respiratory experts remind the public that patients with chronic respiratory diseases should be able to get flu and pneumococcal vaccines to reduce the probability of acute attacks to protect lung function.

Acute lung attack

Patients with chronic respiratory diseases are most afraid of acute attacks, and mild lung function is irreversibly damaged, and severe causes death.

Recently, the “Influenza and Pneumonia Prevention and Control Strategy Seminar under the New Situation” sponsored by the Guangdong Preventive Medicine Association, Chen Ruchong, chief physician of the Department of Respiratory Medicine of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, pointed out that in autumn and winter, when the temperature is low, people are easy. After being infected with the virus, the patient has a fever and cough. After the virus is infected, the immunity is reduced, and the bacteria take advantage of it.

Therefore, in the autumn and winter respiratory department often filled with patients with acute respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with significantly lower lung function, suffering from a flu, even the common cold may make the disease worse, causing cough, cough, breathing difficulties Lung function can also cause irreversible damage.

It should be pointed out that when the season is changed, asthma patients and patients with bronchiectasis are also quite embarrassing. Because a little carelessness can cause an acute attack of the disease due to infection, resulting in wheezing, difficulty breathing, and the like.

Vaccination against pneumonia every two weeks

How can I avoid the acute onset of chronic respiratory diseases? Chief physician Chen Ruchong suggested that the best vaccination. Because the influenza virus is highly contagious and spreads rapidly, it is mainly transmitted by droplets in the air, contact between people or contact with contaminated objects.

Vaccination is one of the most effective measures. The annual autumn and winter season is the high incidence of seasonal flu. Chief physician Chen Ruchong said that every time in the clinic, it is recommended that elderly people over the age of 60 and patients with chronic respiratory diseases can go to the community service center to get flu and pneumonia vaccine.

Influenza vaccination can reduce the infection of influenza virus, and statistics show that about 50% of deaths in the influenza season are due to pneumonia, most of which are pneumococcal infections caused by pneumococcal infection. Therefore, experts actively recommend vaccination, which is expected to reduce the incidence and mortality of pneumococcal infection, if combined with the flu vaccine, can increase the immune effect.

It is understood that there are currently two pneumococcal vaccines on the market: polysaccharide vaccines and conjugate vaccines. Internationally, most countries incorporate a continuous immunization pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into national immunization programmes to inoculate children, young and old, and the elderly.

Professor Zeng Guang, chief expert of epidemiology at the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, also said that before the onset of the flu season, flu vaccine can be given and pneumonia vaccine can be given at intervals of two weeks.

Inclusion of a class of vaccine

Speaking of pneumonia vaccine, many people know very little. Even in Shenzhen and Shanghai, the government has implemented some projects to vaccinate 23-valent pneumonia free of charge, but many people still have not registered for vaccination.

Professor Zeng Guang expressed great regret for this phenomenon. Globally, the coverage of pneumococcal vaccine is only 42%, and it is estimated that China’s developed cities will not exceed 30%, while some cities may be below 5%.

Expert analysis, first of all, the public is not aware of pneumococcal vaccine, because pneumococcal disease is a disease of a large class of diseases – pneumococcal diseases, such as pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, myelitis, can cause death in severe cases, and Leaving serious sequelae such as deafness, paralysis, and mental retardation.

However, many hospitals do not count the data that cause death and disability due to these diseases. Therefore, people do not realize the harmfulness of pneumococcal disease, and naturally they do not pay attention to vaccination.

Secondly, pneumonia is not included in the report of legal diseases in China. Pneumococcal vaccine is only a second-class vaccine, which needs to be injected at its own expense. The price of pneumonia vaccine is not cheap. The latest 13-valent pneumonia vaccine (four needles) requires nearly 3,000 yuan, and many people feel that they can’t afford it.

In fact, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been approved for marketing in more than 160 countries around the world, of which more than 125 countries have incorporated them into their national immunization programmes, and 112 countries have approved pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to be vaccinated throughout the population.

Here, Professor Zeng Guang called on the government to include the pneumococcal vaccine in a class of vaccines (free vaccination). With the promotion and promotion of pneumococcal vaccination rates, this will greatly reduce the mortality rate of children aged 5 years and above. The probability of infectious diseases in the elderly.

Chinese scientists have developed a medical “super coating” for medical devices and implanted devices.

Tianjin, October 23 (Reporter Zhang Daozheng) The reporter learned from Tianjin University on the 23rd that the school’s Zhang Lei and Qi Haishan teams have successfully synthesized the “mussel bionic multifunctional protein material”, which has high adhesion at the same time. Anti-bacterial, anti-fog and other functions are expected to fill the long-term gap in the medical field and become a “super coating” for medical devices and implanted devices.

The human body’s environment is sensitive and complex, and the “invaders” in vitro often react rapidly and violently. It is well known that surgical joint replacement and other operations are prone to bacterial infections. Endoscopy results in mirror water mist due to changes in temperature and humidity in the body. Implantation of devices and sensors in the body is prone to immune rejection. These have greatly affected the treatment. Effectiveness, accuracy and patient recovery.

Based on this, a coating material that can be easily and quickly adhered to the surface of a medical device and has various functions such as antifouling, antibacterial, antifogging and good biocompatibility has become a major bottleneck in the medical field.

“The mussels are everywhere in the ocean. They are sturdy and adhered to the solid surface of rocks, hulls, cables, drifting bottles, etc. under the sea. They are not eroded by dirt and microorganisms in the ocean, and can resist the erosion of wind and waves.” Inspired by the adhesion characteristics of mussels, the Zhang Lei and Qi Haishan teams of Tianjin University conducted research on the adhesion proteins of mussel foot silk. They successfully prepared the “mussel bionic multifunctional protein material” by biosynthesis.

The experimental results show that the new material has strong adhesion to a variety of medical materials, the coating produced by the material can resist more than 95% of bacteria and cell adhesion, and the antibacterial property is prominent; in the hot steam environment, the protein coating The layer-coated glass substrate still maintains high light transmittance and exhibits excellent anti-fog performance; at the same time, the protein coating also has excellent biocompatibility, the hemolysis rate is less than 0.1%, and the cell co-culture survival rate exceeds 99%. This means that medical devices coated with this protein coating are expected to overcome immune rejection in the human body.

Experts say that this “super Chinese scientists have developed a medical “super coating” with broad application prospectsating” with adhesion, anti-fouling, anti-bacterial, anti-fog and excellent biocompatibility has broad application prospects in biomedicine and pharmaceutical fields.

At present, the “super-coating” research of Tianjin University has applied for national patents, and the relevant results have been published in the international authoritative journals “Chemical Newsletter” and “Applied Materials and Interfaces”.